• Overview



    • Goal: Reconstructing Something that Has Already Happened

    • The historian must use evidence and artifacts that were created by the people of the targeted time/place. Often perspectives are missing or only fragments of artifacts remain. There are also many impostures, so authenticating evidence is of the highest importance. The beginning stages of the research process are very inclusive as the goal is to build a complex reconstruction of an event/time. Though in the end, a historian hopes to shed light on a key factor of influence.

  • CCSS Alignment (Research) RI 8.1-8.4, 8.8;  RH 8.2-8.6, 8.8-8.9; W 8.1 & 8.10


Mind Map Worksheet



Excellent Historical Websites

Mind Maps


  • Venn diagrams; Spiral Maps; Nested mind maps; Timelines; Geographic Maps;  Herringbone Maps


Cause and effect; Ripple effect; Issue-analysis; Organizational hierarchies; Trend analysis; Triangulation; Oral History Research; Cultural Competency Frameworks; Linguistic Relativity

Note Taking Toolss

Cluster Notes; Episodic Note Taking Techniques

Common Sources

Collection of artifacts; Interviews; Census Surveys; Photo galleries; Videos; Infographs; Archives and collections of historical artifacts, speeches, terms; A visual encyclopedia of key terms, events, or mores of a time period; Case Studies


Objectives - Student will:

1. Define a question about an event/norm/person

2. Brainstorm possible factors influencing question

3. Create a list of kinds of evidence that could exist

4. Control the authenticity of evidence

5. Details about time/place/culture/geography

6. Include a cross section of perspectives

7. Find corroborating secondary/primary sources

8. Tag research by time/place/people/influences

9. Organize notes into a timeline/map/mind map

10. Apply historical models to describe trends

11. Prioritize the most influential elements

12. Disregard sources when uncorroborated

13. Reconstruct event from your research

14. Authenticate artifacts to avoid anachronisms

15. Impacts on other cultural/geographical areas

16. Discuss what you have chosen to leave out